He wanted to excel in literature in order to take up the study of the Bible. [10], In 1132, Bernard accompanied Innocent II into Italy, and at Cluny the pope abolished the dues which Clairvaux used to pay to that abbey. Bernard, informed of this by William of St-Thierry, is said to have held a meeting with Abelard intending to persuade him to amend his writings, during which Abelard repented and promised to do so. Summary Ref: 2008-22 Clairvaux Abbey was founded in 1115 by Bernard de Fontaines, who directed it until his death in 1153. He wrote at this time his sermons on the Song of Songs. Forbid those noisy troublesome frogs to come out of their holes, to leave their marshes ... Then your friend will no longer be exposed to the accusations of pride and presumption.[4]. He decided in favour of Innocent II. By 1119 the Cistercians had a charter approved by Pope Calixtus II for nine abbeys under the primacy of the abbot of Cîteaux. For this, he was offered, and he refused, the archbishopric of Milan. Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, answered Bernard and assured him of his great admiration and sincere friendship. Ensemble officium presents a programme of Gregorian chant and early polyphony in celebration of this controversial saint. Translated by P ierre-Y ves É mery. St Bernard of Clairvaux and Peter Abelard. It was here, also, that he produced a small but complete treatise on Mariology (study of doctrines and dogmas concerning the Virgin Mary), “Praises of the Virgin Mother.” Bernard was to become a major champion of a moderate cult of the Virgin, though he did not support the notion of Mary’s Immaculate Conception. "[27], Bernard's theology and Mariology continue to be of major importance, particularly within the Cistercian and Trappist orders. Bernard is said to have flung off his own robe and began tearing it into strips to make more. Although the councils of Étampes, Würzburg, Clermont, and Rheims all supported Innocent, large portions of the Christian world still supported Anacletus. Bernard soon saw one of his disciples elected Pope Eugene III. Bernard of Clairvaux (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis; 1090 – 20 August 1153), venerated as Saint Bernard, was a Burgundian abbot, and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Order of Cistercians.. Bernard's letters to William of St-Thierry also express his apprehension about confronting the preeminent logician. Leuven: Éditions de l’Institut supérieur de philosophie, Louvain-La-Neuve/Peeters, 2016. vii + 373 pp. "[20], When Bernard was finished the crowd enlisted en masse; they supposedly ran out of cloth to make crosses. Malachy wanted to become a Cistercian, but the pope would not give his permission. As in the First Crusade, the preaching led to attacks on Jews; a fanatical French monk named Radulphe was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the Rhineland, Cologne, Mainz, Worms, and Speyer, with Radulphe claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land. [13] He was buried at the Clairvaux Abbey, but after its dissolution in 1792 by the French revolutionary government, his remains were transferred to Troyes Cathedral. Other websites. At the 800th anniversary of his death, Pope Pius XII issued an encyclical on Bernard, Doctor Mellifluus, in which he labeled him "The Last of the Fathers." In 1141, at the urgings of Abelard, the archbishop of Sens called a council of bishops, where Abelard and Bernard were to put their respective cases so Abelard would have a chance to clear his name. Malachy died at Clairvaux in 1148. Believing himself at last secure in his cloister, Bernard devoted himself with renewed vigour to the composition of the works which won for him the title of "Doctor of the Church". That dog breed did not receive its namesake from St. Bernard of Clairvaux. Religious even of the other orders, flocked there. The enthusiasm of the assembly of Clermont in 1095, when Peter the Hermit and Urban II launched the first crusade, was matched by the holy fervor inspired by Bernard as he cried, "O ye who listen to me! Meanwhile, as Bernard’s health worsened, his spirituality deepened. His more than 300 letters and sermons manifest his quest to combine a mystical life of absorption in God with his friendship for those in misery and his concern for the faithful execution of responsibilities as a guardian of the life of the church. During his youth, he did not escape trying temptations and around this time he thought of retiring from the world and living a life of solitude and prayer. [13], News came at this time from the Holy Land that alarmed Christendom. vicar of stalisfield. From the beginning of the year 1153, Bernard felt his death approaching. Illustrious persons were buried at Clairvaux in the livery of the poor of Christ, among them Henry of France, brother of King Louis VII; Alexander of Cologne, who was later one of the successors of St. Bernard of Clairvaux; Henry Murdach who became Abbot of Vauclair and later Archbishop of York; Philip, Archdeacon of Liège, etc. That was St. Bernard of Menthon, not the Cistercian reformer of the 12 th Century. In 1139, Bernard assisted at the Second Council of the Lateran. author of “henry viii. 1303-1373), Eugene III Pope (d. 1153), Benedict Saint, Abbot of Monte Cassino, Malachy Saint, Marie Sainte Vierge, Victor Saint, Confessor Bernard was the third of seven children, six of whom were sons. [12] Bernard then denounced Abelard to the pope and cardinals of the Curia. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The zeal of Bernard extended to the bishops, the clergy, and lay people. [citation needed], John Calvin quotes Bernard several times[22] in support of the doctrine of Sola Fide,[23] which Martin Luther described as the article upon which the church stands or falls. [18][19] Others followed his example and he and his helpers were supposedly still producing crosses as night fell. [19], Unlike the First Crusade, the new venture attracted royalty, such as Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France; Thierry of Alsace, Count of Flanders; Henry, the future Count of Champagne; Louis's brother Robert I of Dreux; Alphonse I of Toulouse; William II of Nevers; William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey; Hugh VII of Lusignan, Yves II, Count of Soissons; and numerous other nobles and bishops. Innocent II, having been banished from Rome by Anacletus, took refuge in France. Soon afterwards, Henry of Lausanne was arrested, brought before the bishop of Toulouse, and probably imprisoned for life. [14], Having previously helped end the schism within the Church, Bernard was now called upon to combat heresy. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. This letter made a positive impression on Harmeric, and in the Vatican. Leclercq, "Les Ecrits de Geoffrod'Auxerre,y Revue" bénédictine 62 [1952] 282). Some of these, at the command of Innocent II, took possession of Tre Fontane Abbey, from which Eugene III was chosen in 1145. The bishops made Bernard secretary of the council, and charged him with drawing up the synodal statutes. In 1120, Bernard wrote his first work, De Gradibus Superbiae et Humilitatis, and his homilies which he entitled De Laudibus Mariae. The archbishop of Cologne and the archbishop of Mainz were vehemently opposed to these attacks and asked Bernard to denounce them. "[18], Bernard then passed into Germany, and the reported miracles which multiplied almost at his every step undoubtedly contributed to the success of his mission. saint bernard abbot of clairvaux. Moved by his burning words, many Christians embarked for the Holy Land, but the crusade ended in miserable failure.[6]. St. Bernard of Clairvaux is clearly one of the greatest preachers of all time. The first to die was Suger in 1152, of whom Bernard wrote to Eugene III, "If there is any precious vase adorning the palace of the King of Kings it is the soul of the venerable Suger". King Louis VI of France convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes in 1130, and Bernard was chosen to judge between the rivals for pope. His two successors, Pope Celestine II and Pope Lucius II, reigned only a short time, and then Bernard saw one of his disciples, Bernard of Pisa, and known thereafter as Eugene III, raised to the Chair of Saint Peter. Louis VI convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes, and Bernard, summoned there by consent of the bishops, was chosen to judge between the rival popes. It is said that his mother, Aleth, exerted a virtuous influence upon Bernard only second to what St. Monica had done for St. Augustine of Hippo in the 5th century. In June 1145, at the invitation of Cardinal Alberic of Ostia, Bernard traveled in southern France. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, the second founder of the Cistercians, the Mellifluous Doctor, the apostle of the Crusades, the miracle-worker, the reconciler of kings, the leader of peoples, the counselor of popes! However, Innocent insisted on Bernard's company when he met with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor. From that moment a strong friendship sprang up between the abbot and the bishop, who was professor of theology at Notre Dame of Paris, and the founder of the Abbey of St. Victor, Paris. He did not pledge allegiance to Innocent until 1135. He could also commune with nature and say: Believe me, for I know, you will find something far greater in the woods than in books. This led for a time to the exaltation of human reason and rationalism. He then returned to Clairvaux. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, (born 1090, probably Fontaine-les-Dijon, near Dijon, Burgundy [France]—died August 20, 1153, Clairvaux, Champagne; canonized January 18, 1174; feast day August 20), Cistercian monk and mystic, founder and abbot of the abbey of Clairvaux and one of the most influential churchmen of his time. Three years later, Bernard was sent with a band of twelve monks to found a new house at Vallée d'Absinthe,[6] in the Diocese of Langres. The movement found an ardent and powerful advocate in Peter Abelard. This caused the pope to be recognized by all the great powers. Bernard had a great taste for literature and devoted himself for some time to poetry. Bernard was only nineteen years of age when his mother died. Both his parents were exceptional models of virtue. It was a time when Bernard was experiencing what he apprehended as the divine in a mystical and intuitive manner. The passing of Pope Eugenius had struck the fatal blow by taking from him one whom he considered his greatest friend and consoler. The whole conflict ended when Anacletus died on 25 January 1138.

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